A clock is an instrument to indicate, keep and co-ordinate time. It refers to any device for measuring and displaying the time. The clock is one of the oldest human inventions and it has been meeting the need to consistently measure intervals of time shorter than the natural units which are the day, the month and the year. The timekeeping element in every modern clock is a harmonic oscillator, a resonator which is a physical object that vibrates repetitively at a precisely constant frequency. This object can be a pendulum, a tuning fork, a quartz crystal or the vibration of electrons in atoms as they emit microwaves. Analog clocks indicate the time by using angles; digital clocks do same by displaying a numeric representation of time either 24-hour notation or the 12-hour notation. A lot of digital clocks use electronic mechanisms and LCD, LED or VFD displays. Auditory clocks present time as sounds and this is for people who are blind, or just for people who get them for the convenience they bring.
The mechanical clock was invented in the 13th century and it initiated a change in timekeeping methods from continuous processes, such as the motion of the gnomon's shadow on a sundial or the flow of liquid in a water clock to periodic oscillatory processes like the swinging of a pendulum or the vibration of a quartz crystal which is believed to have more potential for more accuracy. Almost all modern clocks use oscillation. All oscillating, mechanical, digital and atomic clocks work similarly and can be divided into analogous arts. Every clock is made up an oscillator which is an object which repeats the same motion over and over again having a precisely constant time interval between each repetition. The oscillator is also attached to a controller device. This device sustains the oscillator's motion by replacing the energy it loses to friction and converting its oscillations into a series of pulses. The pulses are then counted and the number of counts is converted into units such as seconds, minutes and hours. Then, an indicator displays the result in a form that humans can easily read and understand.
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