SLR (Single Lens Reflex): This is a camera that typically uses a mirror and prism system that permits the photographer to view through the lens and see exactly what will be captured. When the shutter button is pressed on a mechanical SLR, the mirror flips out of the light path, allowing light to pass through to the light receptor and the image to be captured. The viewfinder sees the same image as the main lens, that is, what you see is what you get. SLR also allow you to change lenses for different purposes. You can find the mechanical SLR cameras as well as the DSLR cameras. This is a hugely popular type of camera which is usually preferred as the standard for enthusiasts and professionals.
Viewfinder (or range finder): In this type of camera the viewfinder is separate to the lens. This is common in cheap cameras, although some professional cameras also use this configuration. The main problem with a separate viewfinder is that the image you see may not be quite the same as the image that gets recorded. This limitation is overcome in professional cameras by using viewfinders that compensate for the different positions. Viewfinder cameras do have some advantages; for example, lower noise and higher light levels to the viewfinder.
Twin reflex: Also known as the twin-lens reflex camera or TLR is a type of camera with two objective lenses of the same focal length. One of the lenses is the photographic objective or the lens which capture the picture, while the other is used for the viewfinder system, which is usually viewed from above at waist level. This means that the camera has two lenses — one for the photograph and one for the viewfinder.
View: The view camera is a large format camera in which the lens forms an inverted image on a ground glass screen directly at the plane of the film. The image viewed is exactly the same as the image on the film, which replaces the viewing screen during exposure.
Pinhole: A pinhole camera is a very simple camera without a lens but with a tiny aperture which is the pinhole. This type of camera is effectively a light-proof box with a small hole in one side. Light from a scene passes through the aperture and projects an inverted image on the opposite side of the box, which is known as the camera obscura effect.
Body: A light-tight compartment to house the recording medium (film or CCD).
Lens: A transparent element to focus light rays onto the recording medium.
Aperture: A method of controlling how much light reaches the recording medium.
Shutter: A method of controlling how long the recording medium is exposed to the incoming light.
Viewfinder: A way to see the image that is to be captured.
Transport: In film cameras, a method of moving the film and holding it in the correct position.
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